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War is a compelling subject. It is common to almost all known societies and periods of history. The Cambridge History of Warfare provides a detailed account of war in the West from antiquity to the present day, and is unique because of its controversial t

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This means the researcher can obtain a limitless number of subjects before making a final decision whether to accept the null or alternative hypothesis. Can be used to generate new hypotheses or highlight research problems for future studies. The strengths of one method can be used to overcome the inherent weaknesses of another method.

Longitudinal data facilitate the analysis of the duration of a particular phenomenon. A researcher using a case study design can apply a variety of methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research problem. Intense exposure to the study of a case may bias a researchers interpretation of the findings.

The sampling method is not representative of the entire population. Design is a useful approach for gaining background information on a particular topic. Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations in practice.

Narrative and non-textual information can add meaning to numeric data, while numeric data can add precision to narrative and non-textual information. For example, with longitudinal surveys, the same group of people is interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur. In understood more as an broad approach to examining a research problem than a methodological design, philosophical analysis and argumentation is intended to challenge deeply embedded, often intractable, assumptions underpinning an area of study.

Mixed method is characterized by a focus on research problems that require, 1) an examination of real-life contextual understandings, multi-level perspectives, and cultural influences 2) an intentional application of rigorous quantitative research assessing magnitude and frequency of constructs and rigorous qualitative research exploring the meaning and understanding of the constructs and, 3) an objective of drawing on the strengths of quantitative and qualitative data gathering techniques to formulate a holistic interpretive framework for generating possible solutions or new understandings of the problem. Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative research designs with the general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing quantitatively. Causal effect (nomothetic perspective) occurs when variation in one phenomenon, an independent variable, leads to or results, on average, in variation in another phenomenon, the dependent variable.

A broader, more complex research problem can be investigated because the researcher is not constrained by using only one method. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur. Date of entry and exit from the study is individually defined, therefore, the size of the study population is not constant. In as noted by denyer and tranfield 2009, a systematic review is a specific methodology that identifies existing research about a well-defined topic of investigation, usually derived from a public policy or practice-based problem. Historical sources can be used over and over to study different research problems or to replicate a previous study.


Cambridge History - Faculty of History


Work Experience in the History Faculty. In August, two year 10 students from Soham Village College, undertook a week of work experience with the Cambridge Group for the History of Population & Social Structure (CamPop), transcribing historical documents.

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The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of ...
The Cambridge History of Ancient China provides a survey of the cultural history of pre-imperial China. Fourteen of the leading Western specialists, both historians and archeologists, cover the Shang, Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn, Warring States, Neoli
Buy art history research paper Cambridge Enables survey researchers to get close to the kinds of causal explanations usually attainable only with experiments. Can utilize existing data while at the same time generating and testing a grounded theory approach to describe and explain the phenomenon under study. These overarching tools of analysis can be framed in three ways ontology -- the study that describes the nature of reality for example, what is real and what is not, what is fundamental and what is derivative? Epistemology -- the study that explores the nature of knowledge for example, by what means does knowledge and understanding depend upon and how can we be certain of what we know? Axiology -- the study of values for example, what values does an individual or group hold and why? How are values related to interest, desire, will, A lack of uniformity regarding, for example.
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    Exploratory research is flexible and can address research questions of all types (what, why, how). Mixed methods research represents more of an approach to examining a research problem than a methodology. Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it to control for contemporary contexts. Longitudinal research designs describe patterns of change and help establish the direction and magnitude of causal relationships. There are limitations in the use of metaphor as a vehicle of philosophical analysis.

    In social sciences research, obtaining information relevant to the research problem generally entails specifying the type of evidence needed to test a theory, to evaluate a program, or to accurately describe and assess meaning related to an observable phenomenon. Effectively describe the data which will be necessary for an adequate testing of the hypotheses and explain how such data will be obtained, and describe the methods of analysis to be applied to the data in determining whether or not the hypotheses are true or false. While a philosophical analysis may render problematic that which was once simple or taken-for-granted, the writing can be dense and subject to unnecessary jargon, overstatement, andor excessive quotation and documentation. This provides opportunities for continuous improvement of sampling and methods of analysis. Not all relationships are casual! The possibility always exists that, by sheer coincidence, two unrelated events appear to be related e.

    Cross-sectional studies provide a clear snapshot of the outcome and the characteristics associated with it, at a specific point in time. George washington university, november 2011 cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features no time dimension a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. Tashakkori and creswell (2007) and other proponents of mixed methods argue that the design encompasses more than simply combining qualitative and quantitative methods but, rather, reflects a new third way epistemological paradigm that occupies the conceptual space between positivism and interpretivism. This also increases the chance that key variables change during the course of the study, potentially impacting the validity of the findings. Can be used to generate new hypotheses or highlight research problems for future studies. Conclusions about causal relationships are difficult to determine due to a variety of extraneous and confounding variables that exist in a social environment. Observational studies are usually flexible and do not necessarily need to be structured around a hypothesis about what you expect to observe data is emergent rather than pre-existing. Exploratory designs are often used to establish an understanding of how best to proceed in studying an issue or what methodology would effectively apply to gathering information about the issue. The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy. Thousand oaks, ca pine forge press, 2007 brewer, ernest w.

    History of Art at Cambridge. Our course covers a wide spectrum of art and architecture, from the medieval to modern and contemporary periods. The aim is to foster a wide and deep understanding of art and architecture, and to help you develop visual litera

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    Groups identified for study are purposely selected based upon existing differences in the sample rather than seeking random sampling. Brings clarity to general guiding practices and principles of an individual or group. Unobtrusive measures involve any method for studying behavior where individuals do not know they are being observed. Without attending to these design issues beforehand, the overall research problem will not be adequately addressed and any conclusions drawn will run the risk of being weak and unconvincing. Lanham, md rowman and littlefield, 2017 gough, david, sandy oliver, james thomas, editors.

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    George washington university, november 2011 cross-sectional research designs have three distinctive features no time dimension a reliance on existing differences rather than change following intervention and, groups are selected based on existing differences rather than random allocation. The organization and structure of the section of your paper devoted to describing the research design  will vary depending on the type of design you are using. In observational research, findings may only reflect a unique sample population and, thus, cannot be generalized to other groups. Thousand oaks, ca sage, 2002 payne, geoff and judy payne. Causality research designs assist researchers in understanding why the world works the way it does through the process of proving a causal link between variables and by the process of eliminating other possibilities Buy art history research paper Cambridge Buy now

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    However, you can get a sense of what to do by reviewing the literature of studies that have utilized the same research design. Methods application in health intervention research a multiple case study. It is rare that the entirety of historical documentation needed to fully address a research problem is available for interpretation, therefore, gaps need to be acknowledged. Refine concepts and theories that are invoked in relatively unreflective modes of thought and discourse. Can provide stronger, more robust evidence to support a conclusion or set of recommendations.

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    Action research is much harder to write up because it is less likely that you can use a standard format to report your findings effectively i. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people, places, or things. The research methods videos database hours of tutorials, interviews, video case studies, and mini-documentaries covering the entire research process. As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined. Meta-analysis is an analytical methodology designed to systematically evaluate and summarize the results from a number of individual studies, thereby, increasing the overall sample size and the ability of the researcher to study effects of interest Buy Online Buy art history research paper Cambridge

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    The purpose is to not simply summarize existing knowledge, but to develop a new understanding of a research problem using synoptic reasoning. While longitudinal studies involve taking multiple measures over an extended period of time, cross-sectional research is focused on finding relationships between variables at one moment in time. A single or small number of cases offers little basis for establishing reliability or to generalize the findings to a wider population of people, places, or things. The essentials of action research design follow a characteristic cycle whereby initially an exploratory stance is adopted, where an understanding of a problem is developed and plans are made for some form of interventionary strategy Buy Buy art history research paper Cambridge Online at a discount

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    As a consequence, the overall validity of the study will be undermined. Using a quantitative framework, a cohort study makes note of statistical occurrence within a specialized subgroup, united by same or similar characteristics that are relevant to the research problem being investigated, r ather than studying statistical occurrence within the general population. For example, with longitudinal surveys, the same group of people is interviewed at regular intervals, enabling researchers to track changes over time and to relate them to variables that might explain why the changes occur. Longitudinal data facilitate the analysis of the duration of a particular phenomenon. Because cross-sectional designs generally use survey techniques to gather data, they are relatively inexpensive and take up little time to conduct Buy art history research paper Cambridge For Sale

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    A case study is an in-depth study of a particular research problem rather than a sweeping statistical survey or comprehesive comparative inquiry. There can be analytical difficulties in moving from philosophy to advocacy and between abstract thought and application to the phenomenal world. This allows the researcher to measure change in variables over time. It is generally not expensive, time consuming, or workforce intensive. Cohort studies can end up taking a long time to complete if the researcher must wait for the conditions of interest to develop within the group.

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    There is greater confidence the study has internal validity due to the systematic subject selection and equity of groups being compared. The cross-sectional design can only measure differences between or from among a variety of people, subjects, or phenomena rather than a process of change. A researcher using a case study design can apply a variety of methodologies and rely on a variety of sources to investigate a research problem. Design can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. The purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social sciences.

    In as noted by denyer and tranfield 2009, a systematic review is a specific methodology that identifies existing research about a well-defined topic of investigation, usually derived from a public policy or practice-based problem Sale Buy art history research paper Cambridge

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